Flora and fauna of Albania

Flora and fauna of Albania

 Albania is one of the countries in the world, that has an enrich plants world, in formations and plants escorting. In Albania grow up 3000 kinds of plants (beside the subspecies and varieties), that make about 29 % of European flora and 47 % of Balkan peninsula flora. 1 % of Albanian plants are endemic, 5 % are half endemics, mainly of this plants have Albania for their country. 

Some plants with endemic character are: Gymnospermium shqiptarum Paparisto, Aster albanicus Degen, Ranuncuculus hayeki i Dorfles, Crepis bertiscea 7av,etc. Albanian flora is very enrich with many relic plants of before glacier period and after this. Some of the first period are: Aesculus hippocastanum L, etc, of the second period is Salix reticulata etc.

About 15 % of all plants are charasteric for Balkan peninsula. Other part (85 %) connect with Mediterranean flora, with Central Europe flora and more few with West and East Europe flora. Koplik-Leskovik line cuts of the plants that are mainly Mediterranean kind on the west (Mediterranean wood and bush) from the plants that are mainly the kind of Central Europe with Euro-Asiatic kinds, north Balkan and Alpin-Karpat. All these take 65 % of all Albanian flora and are representing by woods and leaves plants (oak, beachwood, etc) and from different conifers. This plants spread is connected mainly with mountain belts and with disscreasing of sea influence from west to east.

Mountain relief has conditioned the changes of plants kinds. Are four kinds of plants floors: Mediterranean bushes, oaks, beachwood and conifers, and alpine meadows.

Mediterranean bushes take 42 % of the country and are till in 600 m height on north, 700-800 m in Central Albania, and in 800-1000 m height on south. On bottom part of this floor grow up the bushes that are always green, some of them are: Arbutus unedo L, Erica arborea L, Myrtus communis L, etc. In this zone of Mediterranean bushes, there are some surfaces with Mediterranean forest, that are made by forest with Pinus halepensis Miller and Pinus pinea, by forest with Quercus ilex L, by forest with Quercus macrolepis Kotschy, with Quercus pubescens Willd, etc. In warmer sectors are grown up some tropical plants like: palm-trees (Palmaceae Phoenix, Trachycarpus Chamaerops), India fig-trees (Opuntia ficus-indica L Mill), laurel wood (Larus nobilis L), cactus (Agave americana L) and eucalyptus (.Eukaliptus camaldulensis denk) etc. In the top part of this plants floor grown up the bushes that lost their leaves during the cold period of the year. One of them is Carpinus orientalis Mill.

Oaks take about 36 % of the country area. They are spread in 400-800 m.height on North Albania, 550-1000 m height in Central Albania and in 800-1250 m on South Albania. They are made by Quercus petrea Mattuschka Liebl forest, mixed with Quercus frainetto Ten and other species, by forest with Quercus frainetto Ten, with Castanea saliva Miller, with  with Quercus cerris L, with Carpinus betulus L etc. Actually the oaks take 20 % of country forests.

Beach woods take about 17 % of the country area. Together with conifers they spread till 1600 m height on North Albania, till 1800 m in Central Albania and till 1900 m on South Albania. They make the highest border of the forests and are contain by beach-woods and conifers. The beach-woods are represented by beach-wood (Fagus sylvatica L), that is mixed with Abies alba Miller, Acer pseudoplatanus L, Fraxinas angustifolia Vahl, with black pine-wood (Pinus nigra Arnold), which forms with it self inside beach-woods, with Pinus leucodermis Antoine, Pinus peuce Griseb, with Pice a abies L karstem and with Pinus sylvestris L, that has a small spread. Fir-trees take about 2% of country area and are formed by Macedonian fir-tree (Abies borissiregis Mattf), that it is see on South Albania in 1000-1700 m and is mixed with some other kinds of beach-woods like: Quercus pubescens willd, Q.trojana Webb, Q. macrolepis Kotschy, etc, with some conifers: Pinus peuce Griseb, P.leucodermis Antoine, etc. The forests with: Pinus peuce Griseb are contain of Pinus leucodermis Antoine, Pinus peuce Griseb and Pinus Heldreichii Christ. They are lied in 1600-2100 m and have formed a very clear belt in the top border of the forest.

Alpine meadows are lied on highest heights, then forest heights and are contained by greens plants of alpine kinds and are the same to the medium Europe kinds on North Albania and of Mediterranean kinds on South Albania. These are used mainly as pastures.

The forest surface, in Albania, take 35% of territory. But again the forest are treated without the necessary attention and the biggest problem is trees cutting that is done and is still doing. The rapport between trees cutting and their grower capacity is 3:1. This has brought the increasing and the degradation of forest surface. Some forest with characteristic plants and with scientific and practice importance are proclaim National Parks.

Albania is distinguished in Europe for its big diversity of fauna and this is connect with big diversity of landscapes. Because of its geographical position, in Albania pass many migratory birds. To preserve and to increase the number of fauna many rare animals are proclaim the natural monuments; are proclaim some rezervats for wild animals. In spite of that the human influence everywhere, the using of pesticides in agricultural and the hunting without criteria have decreased the number and the kinds of these wild animals. In the territorial fauna the most spread cannibal animals are: dhn bear, wolf, fox, jackal, wild cat, polecat, weasel, and Lynx lynx, Martes martes, L. From insect eating we can mention some: mole and some other kinds of long noise like hedgehog and bats. From herbivores we can mention some like: deer, wild goat, wild, pig, hare, Melees L, etc. Some very rare wild animals are: Lynx lynx, wild goat, deer, beer, etc.

An enrich and interesting world is the fauna of fowls. This fauna is made by 350 kinds and are spread in all around the country. The fowls are migratory birds and permanent one’s. The most spread birds of prey, in our country are: screech owl, hawk eagle, and Falco, Neophron percnopterus L, Gyps fulvus. The water fauna is made by migratory birds (wild duck & wild goose), by Pelecanus crispus, Bruch, that form the colonies in Divjaka, by see-gull. The coastal water and interior water are very enrich With fish (260 kinds, almost from all Mediterranean fish families). Besides the fish in coastal waters it sees also some kinds of turtles, some kinds of water mammals (dolphin, very rare whales and whiteab domen seals), while in rivers and lakes sides lives otter that feeds with fish.

Flora and fauna of Albania Flora and fauna of Albania Friday, February 03, 2017 Rating: 5
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